The dynamic planet: internal structure of the earth, earthquakes, plate tectonics: continental drift theory, theory of plate tectonics and sea floor spreading, rocks & minerals: rock cycle, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, minerals, volcanism: the nature of volcanic eruption and extruded material, volcanic cones, other volcanic landforms, intrusive igneous activity, mountain building: crustal uplift, rock deformation, mountain types, weathering, erosion & mass wasting, landforms developed by river, glaciers and winds, soil: soil formation, soil types, soil texture, soil profile.

Construction of maps and diagrams, identification of rocks and minerals, methods of showing relief: contours (pattern, cross section).

Suggested Reading:
1. Pluijm, B. A.V. and Marshak, S. 2004. Earth Structure: An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics, 2nd edition, W.W. Norton & Company: New York
2. Stoppato, C. M. and Bini A. 2003. Deserts: A Firefly Guide: Toronto: Ontario.
3. Tarbuck , J. E. and Lutgens, K. F. 2000. Earth Science, 9th edition, Prentice Hall: New York.
4. De Blij, J. H. 1995. The Earth: An Introduction to its Physical and Human Geography, 4th edition, John Wiley: New York.
5. Pellant, C. and Pellant, H. 1993. Rocks & Minerals, A Dorling Kindersely Book: London
6. Scott, C. R. 1989. Physical Geography, West Publishing Company: St. Paul.
7. Hamblin, K. W. 1985. The Earth’s Dynamic Systems, 5th edition, Macmillan Publishing Company & Collier Macmillan Publishers: New York.