Maps and essentials of maps (scale, legend, north arrow, projection, conventional signs) types of maps, scales, types of scales: simple statement, representative fraction (R.F.) scale, graphical scale (linear and diagonal), map projections, types of map projections: cylindrical projections (equal area and Mercator’s), conical projections (one standard parallel, two standard parallel) and zenithal projections (equal area, equidistance, gnomonic, and stereographic), digitization of map features, interpretation of maps: methods of showing relief, interpretation of topographical maps, preparation of maps and graphs using statistical data: pie graph, bar graphs, thematic map: dot maps choropleth maps, isopleths maps, surveying, types of surveying (chain survey, plane table survey, theodolite survey), introduction to global positioning system (G.P.S).

Field survey with the help of following instruments: plane table, engineer’s chain, construction of scales, graticules of map projections, thematic maps, pie graph and bar graph.

Suggested Reading:
1. Wolf, Paul R. and Ghilani, C. 2005. Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, 11th Edition. Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
2. Robinson, Kimberling. 2000. Elements of Cartography, sixth edition, John Wiley: New York.
3. Campbell, John. 1991. Map Use and Analysis, WMC. Brown Publishers: Iowa
4. Singh, R.L. 1979. Elements of Practical Geography, Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi.
5. Monkhouse, F.J. 1976. Maps and Diagrams, Methuen & Company: London.
6. Singh, R.L. 1964. Map Work and Practical Geography, Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi.
7. Bygott, J. 1955. An Introduction to Map Work and Practical Geography, University Tutorial Press: London.