Maps and essentials of maps (scale, legend, north arrow, projection,
conventional signs) types of maps, scales, types of scales: simple
statement, representative fraction (R.F.) scale, graphical scale (linear
and diagonal), map projections, types of map projections: cylindrical
projections (equal area and Mercator’s), conical projections
(one standard parallel, two standard parallel) and zenithal projections
(equal area, equidistance, gnomonic, and stereographic), digitization
of map features, interpretation of maps: methods of showing relief,
interpretation of topographical maps, preparation of maps and graphs
using statistical data: pie graph, bar graphs, thematic map: dot maps
choropleth maps, isopleths maps, surveying, types of surveying (chain
survey, plane table survey, theodolite survey), introduction to global
positioning system (G.P.S).