Bridging topics: Traveling waves in more than one dimension, attenuation of waves, Transmission of the momentum and energy of waves, Maxwell’s equations and their importance in optics, energy density and flow, Jones vector, propagation in conducting media.

Reflection and Transmission: Reflection and transmission at the discontinuity, Fresnel’s Formulae, Reflected and Transmitted energy, Normal Incidence, Polarization, Polarization by reflections for the Gean Optics case of conductors and insulators.

Interference: Young interference, Michelson Interferometer, Interference by multiple reflections, Febry-Perot Interferometer, Gean Optics, Eikonal equation, Lens Design and Matrix Algebra, Optics of Resonators, Guided waves, Lagrangian Formulation of Optics and its applications.

Dispersion: Group velocity, Dispersion of Guided Waves, Material Dispersion, Signal Velocity.

Coherence: Photoelectric Mixing, Interference Spectroscopy, Temporal Coherence, Length of Temporal Coherence, Autocorrelation Function. Spatial coherence, a line source, spatial coherence length, stellar Interferometer, intensity Interferometery.

Diffraction and Gausian Beams: Fresnel Formulation, the Obliquity Factor, Gaussian Beams, The ABCD Law.

Fraunhofer Diffraction: Fourier Transform via a Lens, Plane wave Representation, Diffraction by rectangular Aperture, Array Theorem, N Rectangular Slits, Abbe’s Theory of Imaging.

Fresnel diffraction: Fresnel Approximation, Rectangular Apertures, Fresnel Zones, Circular Apertures, Opaque Screen, Zone Plate, Fermat’s Principal.

Recommended Text:
1. B. D. Guenther, “ Modern Optics” John Wiley & Sons (1990).
2. M. Born, E. Wolf, “ Principle of Optics”, Cambridge University Press, (1990).
3. G. Booker, “ Modern Classical Optics”, Oxford University Press, (2003).
4. F. L. Pedrotti, L.S. Pedrotti, “Introduction to Optics”, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall (1993).