Excitation and emission processes: radioactive and non-radioactive recombination.

Photovoltaics: solar radiation and air mass, photovoltaic effect and solar cells, I-V characteristics, materials, solar cell classifications, arrays and modules, solar batteries, applications.

Lasers: necessary requirements for laser production, classes of lasers, doped insulator lasers, gas lasers, liquid lasers, semiconductor lasers, semiconductor laser structures, homojunction lasers, heterojunction lasers, quantum well lasers.

Photodiodes: principle of optical detection, quantum efficiency and responsitivity, materials, photodetectors, PN, PIN, schottky and avalanche photodiodes, phototransistor.

Fiber Optics: optical fiber and cables, advantages of optical fibers, light guiding and signal distortion, fiber types and modes, materials, fabrication of optical fibers, connectors and splices, couplers, optical fiber communication system.

Optoelectronic Integration: hybrid and monolithic integration, applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits..

Recommended Text:
1- J. Wilson & J.F.B Hawks, “Optoelectronics”, Prentice Hall London (1989).
2- Ansar Ahmed Qidwai, “Optoelectronics”, B.C.C. and Press, University of Karachi (2004).
3- Pallab Bahttacharya, “Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices”, Prentice Hall India (2004).
4- Bahaa E.A. Salch & Matvin Carl Telch, “Fundamental of Photonics”, John Wiley Sons. N.Y. (1991).